Ingraining goal orientation behavior among Malaysian adolescents using Solution-focused group work (SFGW)

Ratnadevi R Shunmugam(1), Sidek Mohd. Noah(2), Wan Marzuki Wan Jaafar(3),
(1) Universiti Putra Malaysia
(2) Universiti Putra Malaysia
(3) Universiti Putra Malaysia

Corresponding Author


Full Text:    Language : English


Setting goals can be reviewed as aspirations for future betterment especially among adolescents. Goal-setting process involves aspects like future planning, principles, values, priorities, application of knowledge and decision making.  This process varies according to individual needs and requires different approaches and guidance. Literature review prevailed that the essential ingredient of Solution-focused approach is setting goals. Solution-focused techniques found to be vital and crucial in assisting adolescents to set goals. Two objectives were drawn through literature reviews. Objective one is to determine the effectiveness of SFGW in increasing adolescent’s goal orientation behavior mean score between pre-test, post-test and follow-up test.  And, the second objective is to compare the effects between SFGW intervention module (treatment group) and traditional module (control group) on goal orientation mean score for post-test and follow-up test.  This is a true experimental with pre-test and post-test design using Solution-focused module and administration of questionnaires for data collection. A total of 66 samples who met the inclusion requirement were assigned randomly to experimental (n = 32) and control (n = 34) groups using paired-matched design.  The samples in experimental group were given treatment using the SFGW intervention program for seven weeks.  After the completion of the treatment, posttest and follow-up test were carried out and data was collected using Goal Orientation Scale.  The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test, and one-way repeated measure ANOVA.  The study discloses that SFGW does significantly affect the level of goal orientation behavior among Malaysian adolescents.


adolescents, goal orientation behavior, solution-focused theory, goal setting


Abdullah, H., Ortega, A., Ahmad, N., Ghazali, S. (2015). aggressive and delinquent behavior among high

risk youth in Malaysia. Asian Social Science. 11(16), 62-73.

Ates, B. (2016). Effect of solution-focused group counseling for high school students in order to struggle

with school burnout. Journal of Education and Training Studi. 4(4), 27-34.

Busari, A. O. (2016). Solution focused social interest programme as treatment option. Journal of Mental

Disorders Treatment. 2(2), 1-10.

Carroll, A., Gordon, K., Haynes, M & Houghton, S. (2013). Goal setting and self-efficacy among

delinquent, at-risk and not at-risk adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 42(3), 431-443.

Guthrie, J. T., Klauda, S. L. & Ho, A. N. (2013). Modeling the relationships among modeling the

relationships among reading motivation, reading motivation , engagement and achievement

engagement and achievement for adolescents. Reading Research Quarterly. 48(1), 9–26.

Kathleen, M. G. & Lacey, R. C. (2014). Goals, styles, and decisions: Changes and interactions during the

first year of college. American Journal of Psychology. 127(3), 383–396.

Kuldas, S., Hashim, S. & Ismail, H. N. (2015). Malaysian adolescent students’ needs for enhancing

thinking skills, counteracting risk factors and demonstrating academic resilience. International

Journal of Adolescence and Youth. 20(1), 32–47.

Lee, L. T. (2014, April 14). Juvenile crime on the rise. TheStarOnline, pp 2-3. Retrieved from

Locke, E.A. & Latham, G.P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. New Jersey, United States:

Prentice-Hall. Inc.

Marjan, M. & Hayati, K. S. (2017). Life skills education for Malaysian institutionalized adolescents:

knowledge needs and priorities: A qualitative pilot study. Iranian Journal of Public Health. 46(12), 1739– 1741.

Moeller, A. J., Janine, M., Theiler & Wu, C. (2012). Goal setting and student achievement: A longitudinal

study. The Modern Language Journal. 96 (2), 153-169.

Morton, M. H. & Montgomery, P. (2013). Youth empowerment programs for improving adolescents’ self-

efficacy and self-esteem: A systematic review. Research on Social Work Practice. 23(1), 22-33.

Moshman, D. (2011). Adolescent rationality and development: Cognition, morality and identity. (3rd ed). New

York: Psychology Press.

Mohd. Isa, S., Hashim A.H., Kaur, M., Ng, CG. (2016). Internet addiction among adolescents in

Malaysia: the prevalence and its association with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders

(ADHD) symptoms. Malaysian Journal of Psychiatry E-Journal. 25(1), 3-18.

Paolini, A. C. (2016). Utilizing solution focused brief counseling with primary and middle school grades:

Helping the perpetrator and the victim mitigate effects of bullying introduction. Overview of Bullying. 10(2), 50-60.

Paul, D. G. (2017). The effects of a goal setting intervention on delinquent adolescent group treatment outcomes.

(Unpublished Doctoral thesis).

Razali, A., Dokoushkani, F. & Rajendran, K. (2013). What does literature say about student at risk?

Psychology and Behavioural Sciences. 2(2), 51-58.

Tin Zhi Ling, Jessemine Khoo Ai Pheng, Wong Wan Sin & Tan Soon-Aun. (2017). The relationship

between personality traits and behavioral problems among adolescents in Malaysia. Sains Humanika. 3(2), 29-35.

Trepper, Terry & Mccollum, Eric & De Jong, Peter & Korman, Harry & Gingerich, Wallace & Franklin,


Article Metrics

 Abstract Views : 172 times
 PDF Downloaded : 18 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.