The effect of behavioral rehearsal technique through group counseling for overcoming social anxiety of students

Abdul Saman(1), Muhammad Ilham Bakhtiar(2),
(1) Universitas Negeri Makassar
(2) Universitas Negeri Makassar

Corresponding Author


Full Text:    Language : en


This research examined the influence of group counseling using behavioral rehearsal techniques to overcome students’ social anxiety. This research used the quantitative method with a quasi-experimental design namely Matching-Only Design. The study involved 30 students for the control group and 30 students for the experimental group selected through purposive sampling.  Data were collected using a questionnaire that had been validated. They were then analyzed using normality testing, homogeneity, data nominality testing, gain score and hypothesis testing. The findings of this research indicated that group counseling through behavioral rehearsal techniques could overcome the problem of social anxiety experienced by students. In the pretest, the research showed that the social anxiety level of students in the experimental group was in the high category, and the control group was in the medium category. While the posttests of both experimental and control groups were in the very low category. Behavioral rehearsal techniques should be informational and practical in the development of knowledge, especially in dealing with the problems of social anxiety.


social anxiety; group counseling; behavioral rehearsal


Alfano, C. A., & Beidel, D. C. (2011). Social Anxiety in Adolescents and Young Adults: Translating Developmental Science Into Practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

APA. (2017). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Albano, A. M., & Hayward, C. (2004). Social anxiety disorder. Phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: A clinician’s guide to effective psychosocial and pharmacological interventions, 198–235.

Beidas, R. S., Cross, W., & Dorsey, S. (2014). Show me, don’t tell me: Behavioral rehearsal as a training and analogue fidelity tool. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 21(1), 1–11.

Blatner, A. (2003). Psychodrama. Play Therapy with Adults, 34–61.

Brown, N. W. (1994). Group counseling for elementary and middle school children. Praeger.

B.F. Grant, F. S. (2005). Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidity of bipolar I disorder and axis I and II disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on alcohol and related conditions. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 66, 1205-1215.

Bakhtiar, M. I. (2015). Pengembangan video ice breaking sebagai media bimbingan konseling dalam meningkatkan keterampilan sosial. Jurnal Psikologi Pendidikan dan Konseling: Jurnal Kajian Psikologi Pendidikan dan Bimbingan Konseling, 1(2), 150-162.

Bakhtiar, M. I., & Rahmatia. (2018). The Effectiveness of Group Counseling Model through The Behavioral Rehearsal Approach to Overcome Student Social Anxiety. Journal of Education, Teaching and Learning, 3(2), 354-360. doi:10.26737/jetl.v3i2.779

Bakhtiar, M. I., Saman, A., & Aryani, F. (2017). Mengatasi Kecemasan Sosial Melalui Pendekatan Behavioral Rehearsal. Seminar Nasional Dies Natalis Universitas Negeri Makassar, 320-326.

Corey, G. (2015). Theory and practice of group counseling. Cengage Learning.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative resarch. Educational Research. Pearson.


Erford, B. T. (2014). 40 techniques every counselor should know. Pearson Higher Ed.

Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (2009). How to design and evaluate research in education. Qualitative Research. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.


Fitriana, Firman, & Daharnis. (2018). Effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy counseling group setting in overcoming student’s social anxiety. International Conferences on Educational,Social Sciences and Technology (hal. 740-746). Padang: Universitas Negeri Padang.

Goldstein-Piekarski, A., Williams, L., & Humphreys, K. (2016). A trans-diagnostic review of anxiety disorder comorbidity and the impact of multiple exclusion criteria on studying clinical outcomes in anxiety disorders. Transl. Psychiatry, e847.

Hecker, J., & Thorpe, G. (2015). Introduction to clinical psychology. Taylor & Francis.

Hofmann, S. G., & DiBartolo, P. M. (2014). Social anxiety: clinical, developmental, and social perspectives. Elsevier Science.

Hayama, Y., & Inoue, T. (2012). The effects of deep breathing on ‘tension–anxiety’ and fatigue in cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 18(2), 94-98. doi:10.1016/j.ctcp.2011.10.001

Ismail, H. F. (2018). Statistika untuk Penelitian Pendidikan dan Ilmu-Ilmu Sosial. Jakarta: Kencana

KA, Y., SE, B., IR, D., & MB, K. (2003). Chronicity, relapse, and illness—Course of panic disorder, social anxiety, and generalized anxiety disorder: Findings in men and women from 8 years of follow-up. Depression and Anxiety, 30-41.

Kurtylmaz, Y. (2015). Counselor Trainees’ Views on Their Forthcoming Experiences in Practicum Course. Psikolojik Danışman Adaylarının Bireyle Psikolojik Danışma Uygulaması Dersindeki Olası Yaşantılarına İlişkin Görüşleri., (61), 155–180.

La Greca, A. M., & Lopez, N. (1998). Social anxiety among adolescents: Linkages with peer relations and friendships. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26(2), 83–94.

Ledley, D. R., Erwin, B. A., Heimberg, R. G., Craighead, W. E., Miklowitz, D. J., Craighead, L. W., & Craighead, L. W. (2008). Social anxiety disorder. Psychopathology: History, Theory, and Empirical Foundations, 198–233.

Maharani, S., & Hayati, F. (2020). Pengaruh Prenatal Gentle Yoga Terhadap Tingkat Kecemasan Ibu Hamil Menghadapi Persalinan. Jurnal Endurance : Kajian Ilmiah Problema Kesehatan, 5(1), 161-167.

Moshman, D. (2011). Adolescent rationality and development: cognition, morality, and identity, third edition. Taylor & Francis.

Muller, J. E., Koen, L., Seedat, S., & Stein, D. J. (2005). Social Anxiety Disorder. CNS Drugs, 19(5), 377–391.

RC, K., P, B., O, D., R, J., KR, M., & EE, W. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV Disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 593–605.

Romano, M., Moscovitch, D. A., Ma, R., & Huppert, J. D. (2019). Social problem solving in social anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 68, 102152.

Raj, B. A., & Sheehan, D. V. (2001). Social anxiety disorder. Medical Clinics of North America, 85(3), 711–733.

Schneier, F. R. (2006). Social anxiety disorder. New England Journal of Medicine, 355(10), 1029–1036.

Sheeran, P., Klein, W. M. P., & Rothman, A. J. (2017). Health behavior change: Moving from observation to intervention. Annual Review of Psychology, 68, 573–600.

Stein, M. B., & Stein, D. J. (2008). Social anxiety disorder. The Lancet, 371(9618), 1115–1125.

Swinson, R. P. (2005). Social anxiety disorder. SAGE Publications Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA.

Shier, M. L., Gouthro, S., & Goias, R. d. (2018). The pursuit of social capital among adolescent high school aged girls: The role of formal mentor-mentee relationships. Children and Youth Services Review, 93, 276-282. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.07.034

Sudiarto, Suwondo, A., & Nurrudin, A. (2015). Effect of Relaxation with Changes Anxiety And Sleep Quality ICU Patient in Intensive Care Unit. Jurnal Riset Kesehatan, 4(3), 847-856.

Turk, C. L., Heimberg, R. G., & Hope, D. A. (2001). Social anxiety disorder. Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders: A Step-by-Step Treatment Manual, 3, 114–153.

Valeria Ivaniushina, V. L. (2016). Academic help seeking among Russian minority and non-minority adolescents: A social capital outlook. Learning and Individual Differences, 50, 283-290. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2016.07.016

Wang, Y., Tian, L., & Huebner, E. S. (2019). Basic psychological needs satisfaction at school, behavioral school engagement, and academic achievement: Longitudinal reciprocal relations among elementary school students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 56, 130-139. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2019.01.003

Walsh, J. (2002). Shyness and social phobia a social work perspective on a problem in living. Health & Social Work, 27(2), 137–144.

Wirawan, H., Jufri, M., & Anto Patak, A. (2018). Spiritual group training for adolescences. International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 7(1), 62–74.

Wright, J. H., Brown, G. K., Thase, M. E., & Basco, M. R. (2017). Learning cognitive-behavior therapy: an illustrated guide. American Psychiatric Pub.

Zakiyah. (2014). Pengaruh dan Efektivitas Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) Berbasis Komputer terhadap Klien Cemas dan Depresi. E-Journal Widya Kesehatan dan Lingkungan. 1.(1): 75-80.

Article Metrics

 Abstract Views : 92 times
 PDF Downloaded : 30 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.