Family Involvement And Academic Self Efficacy as a Factors in Childrens Academic Engagement

Nurmina Nurmina(1),

Corresponding Author


Full Text:    Language : en


The main goal of the present study is to examine the effect of family involvement and academic self efficacy toward children academic engagement. Sample of this research 97 children from 5rd to 6th grade of elementary school. Data collection tool used was questionaire form of academic engagement scale (35 items), family involvement scale (28 items), and academic self efficacy scale (40 items). Based on the analysis of research data, it was found that the obtained R square value of 0.35 with a significance level of p<0.01. It can be concluded that there are significant effect of family involvement and academic self efficacy toward children academic engagement. In general, we found the positive impact of students academic self-efficacy and parents involvement on students school engagement. But their impact differ in the respondent, their parents personal and their parents involvement characteristics also. As an example, gender status, specifically being as female, made their academic engagement better.


Bandura, A. (1 99 1). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50,248-287.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NYFreeman.

Birch, S. H., & Ladd, G. W. (1996). Interpersonal relationships in the school environment and childrens early school adjustment: The role of teachers and peers. In J. Juvonen &K. R. Wentzel (Eds.), Socialmotivation: Understanding childrens school adjustment (pp. 199225). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Birch, S. H., & Ladd, G. W. (1997). The teacherchild relationship and childrens early school adjustment. Journal of School Psychology, 35, 6179.

Birch, S. H., & Ladd, G. W. (1998). Childrens interpersonal behaviors and the teacherchild relationship. Developmental Psychology, 34, 934946.

Connell, J. P., Spencer, M. B., & Aber, J. L. (1994). Educational risk and resilience in African-American youth: Context, self, action, and outcomes in school. Child Development, 65, 493506.

Connell, J. P., & Wellborn, J. G. (1991). Competence, autonomy and relatedness: A motivational analysis of self-system processes. In M. Gunnar & L. A. Sroufe (Eds.), Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology:Self processes and development (Vol. 23, pp. 4377). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and selfdetermination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.

Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., & Schiefele, U. (1998). Motivation to succeed. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of childpsychology: Social and personality development (Vol. 4, pp. 1017 1095). New York: Wiley.

Finn, J. D. (1989). Withdrawing from school. Review of Educational Research, 59,117142.

Finn, J. D., & Rock, D. A. (1997). Academic success among students at risk for school failure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82 , 221234.

Finn, J. D., & Zimmer, K. (2012). Student engagement: What is it? Why does it matter? In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 97131). New York: Springer.

Fredricks, J.A &McColskey, W. (2012) The Measurement of Student Engagement: A Comparative Analysis of Various Methods and Student Self-report Instruments. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 97131). New York: Springer.

Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. (2004). School engagement: potential of the concept: state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74, 59-119.

Furrer, C., & Skinner, E. (2003). Sense of relatedness as a factor in children's academic engagment and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 148-162.

Goldstein, L. S. (1999). The relational zone: The role of caring relationshipsin the co-construction of mind. American Educational ResearchJournal, 36, 647673.

Hymel, S., Comfort, C., Schonert-Reichl, K., & McDougall, P. (1996). Academic failure and school dropout: The influence of peers. In J.

Juvonen & K. R. Wentzel (Eds.), Social motivation: Understandingchildrens school adjustment (pp. 313345). New York: CambridgeUniversity Press.

Pianta, R. C. (1994). Patterns of relationships between children and kindergarten teachers. Journal of School Psychology, 32, 1531.

Skinner, E. A. (1996). A guide to constructs of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71 ,549570.

Skinner, E. A., & Belmont, M. J. (1993). Motivation in theclassroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal ofEducational Psychology, 85 , 571581.

Skinner, E. A., Chi, U., & the Learning-GardensEducational Assessment Group (2012). Intrinsic motivationand engagement as active ingredients in garden-based education: Examining models and measuresderived from self-determination theory. Journal ofEnvironmental Education , 43(1), 1636.

Skinner, E., Edge, K., Altman, J., & Sherwood, H. (2003).Searching for the structure of coping: A review andcritique of category systems for classifying ways ofcoping. Psychological Bulletin, 129 , 216269.

Skinner, E. A., Furrer, C., Marchand, G., & Kindermann,T. (2008). Engagement and disaffection in the classroom:Part of a larger motivational dynamic? Journalof Educational Psychology, 100 , 765781.

Skinner, E. A., Kindermann, T. A., Connell, J. P., & Wellborn,J. G. (2009a). Engagement as an organizational constructin the dynamics of motivational development. In K.Wentzel & A. Wigfi eld (Eds.), Handbook of motivationat school (pp. 223245). Malwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Skinner, E. A., Kindermann, T. A., & Furrer, C. (2009b).A motivational perspective on engagement and disaffection:Conceptualization and assessment of childrensbehavioral and emotional participation inacademic activities in the classroom. Educational andPsychological Measurement, 69 , 493525.

Skinner, E. A., & Wellborn, J. G. (1994). Coping duringchildhood and adolescence: A motivational perspective.In D. Featherman, R. Lerner, & M. Perlmutter (Eds.),Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 12,pp. 91133). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Skinner, E. A., & Wellborn, J. G. (1997). Childrens copingin the academic domain. In S. A. Wolchik & I. N.Sandler (Eds.),Handbook of childrens coping withcommon stressors: Linking theory and intervention(pp. 387422). New York: Plenum Press.

Skinner, E. A., Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., & Connell, J. P.(1998). Individual differences and the development ofperceived control.Monographs of the Society forResearch in Child Development, 63 (nos. 2 and 3)whole no. 254, pp. 1220.

Steinberg, L., Darling, N. E., & Fletcher, A. C. (1995). Authoritativeparenting and adolescent adjustment: An ecological journey. In P. Moen,G. H. Elder, Jr., K. Luscher, & H. E. Quick (Eds.), Examining lives incontext: Perspectives on the ecology of human development (pp. 423466). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Stipek, D. J. (2002). Motivation to learn: From theory to practice (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Wellborn, J. G. (1991). Engaged and disaffected action: The conceptualization and measurement of motivation in the academic domain . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Rochester, Rochester.

Weiner, B. (1990). History of motivation research in education. Journal ofEducational Psychology, 82, 616622.

Wentzel, K. R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school: The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology , 90, 202-209.

Article Metrics

 Abstract Views : 134 times
 PDF Downloaded : 66 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.